09 January 2012

Internet Domain Suffixes

This is a list of the internet domain suffixes. That is, the last word in a URL or email address. They can refer to the type of address (eg. businesses will be .com, governments will be .gov and schools will be .edu.) They also show the country, and these two can oftentimes mix. (eg. a school in Singapore can be .edu.sg and my Government is .gov.sg)

Credit: This list is adapted from UKTSupport.

Category Suffixes

  • AC - Academic (same as.edu)
  • CO - Commercial (same as .com)
  • COM - Commercial
  • EDU - Educational
  • GOV - Government
  • INT - International
  • MIL - Military
  • NET - Network
  • ORG - Non-Profit Organisation
  • ARPA - Old style Arpanet
  • NATO - Nato field
Country Suffixes 

Note: American addresses seldom use their Country Suffix.
  • AD - Andorra
  • AE - United Arab Emirates
  • AF - Afghanistan
  • AG - Antigua and Barbuda
  • AI - Anguilla
  • AL - Albania
  • AM - Armenia
  • AN - Netherlands Antilles
  • AO - Angola
  • AQ - Antarctica
  • AR - Argentina
  • AS - American Samoa
  • AT - Austria
  • AU - Australia
  • AW - Aruba
  • AZ - Azerbaijan
  • BA - Bosnia Herzegovina
  • BB - Barbados
  • BD - Bangladesh
  • BE - Belgium
  • BF - Burkina Faso
  • BG - Bulgaria
  • BH - Bahrain
  • BI - Burundi
  • BJ - Benin
  • BM - Bermuda
  • BN - Brunei Darussalam
  • BO - Bolivia
  • BR - Brazil
  • BS - Bahamas
  • BT - Bhutan
  • BV - Bouvet Island
  • BW - Botswana
  • BY - Belarus
  • BZ - Belize
  • CA - Canada
  • CC - Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • CF - Central African Republic
  • CG - Congo
  • CH - Switzerland
  • CI - Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • CK - Cook Islands
  • CL - Chile
  • CM - Cameroon
  • CN - China
  • CO - Colombia
  • CR - Costa Rica
  • CS - Czechoslovakia (former)
  • CU - Cuba
  • CV - Cape Verde
  • CX - Christmas Island
  • CY - Cyprus
  • CZ - Czech Republic
  • DE - Germany
  • DJ - Djibouti
  • DK - Denmark
  • DM - Dominica
  • DO - Dominican Republic
  • DZ - Algeria
  • EC - Ecuador
  • EE - Estonia
  • EG - Egypt
  • EH - Western Sahara
  • ER - Eritrea
  • ES - Spain
  • ET - Ethiopia
  • FI - Finland
  • FJ - Fiji
  • FK - Falkland Islands
  • FM - Micronesia
  • FO - Faroe Islands
  • FR - France
  • FX - France, Metropolitan
  • GA - Gabon
  • GB - Great Britain (UK)
  • GD - Grenada
  • GE - Georgia
  • GF - French Guiana
  • GH - Ghana
  • GI - Gibraltar
  • GL - Greenland
  • GM - Gambia
  • GN - Guinea
  • GP - Guadeloupe
  • GQ - Equatorial Guinea
  • GR - Greece
  • GS - South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands.
  • GT - Guatemala
  • GU - Guam
  • GW - Guinea-Bissau
  • GY - Guyana
  • HK - Hong Kong
  • HM - Heard and McDonald Islands
  • HN - Honduras
  • HR - Croatia (Hrvatska)
  • HT - Haiti
  • HU - Hungary
  • ID - Indonesia
  • IE - Ireland
  • IL - Israel
  • IN - India
  • IO - British Indian Ocean Territory
  • IQ - Iraq
  • IR - Iran
  • IS - Iceland
  • IT - Italy
  • JM - Jamaica
  • JO - Jordan
  • JP - Japan
  • KE - Kenya
  • KG - Kyrgyzstan
  • KH - Cambodia
  • KI - Kiribati
  • KM - Comoros
  • KN - Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • KP - North Korea
  • KR - South Korea
  • KW - Kuwait
  • KY - Cayman Islands
  • KZ - Kazakhstan
  • LA - Laos
  • LB - Lebanon
  • LC - Saint Lucia
  • LI - Liechtenstein
  • LK - Sri Lanka
  • LR - Liberia
  • LS - Lesotho
  • LT - Lithuania
  • LU - Luxembourg
  • LV - Latvia
  • LY - Libya
  • MA - Morocco
  • MC - Monaco
  • MD - Moldova
  • MG - Madagascar
  • MH - Marshall Islands
  • MK - Macedonia
  • ML - Mali
  • MM - Myanmar
  • MN - Mongolia
  • MO - Macau
  • MP - Northern Mariana Islands
  • MQ - Martinique
  • MR - Mauritania
  • MS - Montserrat
  • MT - Malta
  • MU - Mauritius
  • MV - Maldives
  • MW - Malawi
  • MX - Mexico
  • MY - Malaysia
  • MZ - Mozambique
  • NA - Namibia
  • NC - New Caledonia
  • NE - Niger
  • NF - Norfolk Island
  • NG - Nigeria
  • NI - Nicaragua
  • NL - Netherlands
  • NO - Norway
  • NP - Nepal
  • NR - Nauru
  • NT - Neutral Zone
  • NU - Niue
  • NZ - New Zealand (Aotearoa)
  • OM - Oman
  • PA - Panama
  • PE - Peru
  • PF - French Polynesia
  • PG - Papua New Guinea
  • PH - Philippines
  • PK - Pakistan
  • PL - Poland
  • PM - St. Pierre and Miquelon
  • PN - Pitcairn
  • PR - Puerto Rico
  • PT - Portugal
  • PW - Palau
  • PY - Paraguay
  • QA - Qatar
  • RE - Reunion
  • RO - Romania
  • RU - Russian Federation
  • RW - Rwanda
  • SA - Saudi Arabia
  • SB - Solomon Islands
  • SC - Seychelles
  • SD - Sudan
  • SE - Sweden
  • SG - Singapore
  • SH - St. Helena
  • SI - Slovenia
  • SJ - Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
  • SK - Slovak Republic
  • SL - Sierra Leone
  • SM - San Marino
  • SN - Senegal
  • SO - Somalia
  • SR - Suriname
  • ST - Sao Tome and Principe
  • SU - USSR (former)
  • SV - El Salvador
  • SY - Syria
  • SZ - Swaziland
  • TC - Turks and Caicos Islands
  • TD - Chad
  • TF - French Southern Territories
  • TG - Togo
  • TH - Thailand
  • TJ - Tajikistan
  • TK - Tokelau
  • TM - Turkmenistan
  • TN - Tunisia
  • TO - Tonga
  • TP - East Timor
  • TR - Turkey
  • TT - Trinidad and Tobago
  • TV - Tuvalu
  • TW - Taiwan
  • TZ - Tanzania
  • UA - Ukraine
  • UG - Uganda
  • UK - United Kingdom
  • UM - US Minor Outlying Islands
  • US - United States
  • UY - Uruguay
  • UZ - Uzbekistan
  • VA - Vatican City State
  • VC - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • VE - Venezuela
  • VG - British Virgin Islands
  • VI - U.S. Virgin Island
  • VN - Vietnam
  • VU - Vanuatu
  • WF - Wallis and Futuna Islands
  • WS - Samoa
  • YE - Yemen
  • YT - Mayotte
  • YU - Yugoslavia
  • ZA - South Africa
  • ZM - Zambia
  • ZR - Zaire
  • ZW - Zimbabwe

31 October 2011


Update (16 March 2013): Since this post was published, I have not seen the tsunami of uptake of Diaspora to the point of unseating the largest - but Corporation-controlled - social networking site in the world. Also, when I logged into Diaspora last week or so, it felt sluggish so the HTML5 (?) coding may need more attention to speed and delivery.

A new day has dawned in social networking!

Today, I simply want to announce to the world that a new day has dawned in social networking... DIASPORA Decentralised Social Networking has come.

In layman's term, YOU decide what the world can know about you, can retain your own account forever (no company can just terminate you for mysterious "violations of the ToS") and even set up your own "pod" so that you are providing the service to others.

NO company owns your data!

I will update this post as time permits. Very busy now building the Community and making money!

06 September 2011

Problems with Skype for Android

As most of you know, I am an avid user of Skype. I use Skype on the desktop and also on my phones. These include Skype for Android, Symbian and iPhone. I even tried Skype using USB Skype phones etc. I do not support Apple but then that is fodder for another post...

My current gripe with Skype stems from its Android version.

Here is a list of the Skype for Android problems I have experienced, and looking through the Reviews on Android Market and various Skype forums, I know that there are more.
  1. Skype keeps logging out and in again, and it is very annoying to be "signing in..." twenty times in a day.
  2. Even after signing in so very often, Skype is still unusable... it would be perpetually sync-ing itself to something. You can verify this by looking at the circle that loops clockwise in the status bar on top.
  3. Many times, Skype would ask me to "reinstall" itself for no rhyme or reason.
  4. When Skype is in the middle of dialing a phone number, I am unable to turn on the handsfree speaker, so I have to hold the phone close to my ear to listen to the progress of the call - which would then lead to Skype hanging up the phone due to some proximity sensor.
These 4 reasons alone have caused me to rate Skype "POOR" and I wish that Skype would debug and IMPROVE an otherwise fantastic (and highly desired) software.
Skype for Android Version:
Android Version: CyanogenMod MiniCM7 v6.0
Phone: Sony Ericsson X10 Mini Pro

23 August 2011

Repentance And Religion

The Word of God speaks again!

Early in the morning, as I was on my knees praying for the Presidential Election in my country, I read Matthew 3 as part of my personal daily Bible Study programme.

The two lessons that the Holy Spirit taught me through His Word are that:

  1. Repentance Precedes Religion; and
  2. Religion Is Still Relevant.

The Pharisees and Sadducees - the clergy - of John's day (John the Baptist, cousin of Jesus) were believers in his message of water baptism. That is why they came to him in the first place! Would you be baptised by anybody if you did not first subscribe to his or her message?

WHY the clergy believed in John is a topic for another day, but for now, let us look at John's conversation with them.

Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan, and were baptised of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, "O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance." (Matthew 3:5-8)

The clergy is already "spiritual" by any human standard. Indeed, they are the very ones who perform rites and rituals for others to participate in their faith.

Their going for baptism is like we going to church activities today. (Religion) However, John knew by the Spirit that they were trying to "be good" in order to receive salvation. He basically set the record straight by telling them that BEFORE you get involved with Religion, you must first possess REPENTANCE.

According to Princeton:


noun /riˈpentns/ 
repentances, plural

  1. The action of repenting; sincere regret or remorse
    • - each person who turns to God in genuine repentance and faith will be saved
Therefore, REPENTANCE PRECEDES RELIGION. Your cell group participation, church attendance and ushering etc. means NOTHING and does NOTHING to help you "escape from the wrath to come"... UNLESS you first have a RELATIONSHIP with God. This is the result of repentance. Yes, a Relationship with God through Jesus Christ.

How can you know if you have repented? There are "fruits"! Just like there is the "fruit" of a Spirit-filled life. (fruit of the Spirit cf. Galatians 5:22)

Until you have fruits that REFLECT (meet) your repentance, Religion is meaningless.

Then comes the next question, Is Religion irrelevant? Can we be followers of Jesus without going to church, through water baptism, serving in our cellgroups, attending to prayer house and so on?

The answer lies in what Jesus told John the Baptist just before John tried to stop our Lord from His "Religion" (baptism - a religious act):

And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness. (Matthew 3:15)

YES! Religion is relevant. The truth is simply this - that Jesus Christ as Lord and God with us - did NOT have to go through water baptism, YET HE WENT THROUGH WITH IT.

Why? Simply because it was the right thing to do!

It is right to go to church regularly!
It is right to be water baptised!
It is right to attend cellgroup meetings!
It is right to pray consistently at prayer house!
It is right to fast!

It is RELEVANT to do the right thing. Thus, it is NOT correct to say that if you are an active churchgoer, you are "over-spiritual". It is alright to have Religion. However, you must remember at all times that "Repentance precedes Religion". Only then will your religion be true and acceptable to God.

23 July 2011

Empty Taxis Did Not Pick Up Passengers

Last night, I had the unfortunate need to take a Singapore taxi home at 11.00pm. Someone said before that taking a cab is a luxury.

In order to "discourage" commuters from taking cabs and switch to "public transport", plus ease traffic conditions, the Government has allowed the increase of fares with the introduction of various surcharges.

Back to my story, there was a long queue at the taxi stand and hardly any taxi in sight.

What was more frustrating, was that some drivers were traveling on empty vehicles and NOT picking up passengers. They might even be possibly circuiting around the area like a vulture hovers above its next meal. To add insult to injury, these cabbies did NOT even bother to turn off their bright "TAXI" signage on top of their cabin. Lest anyone says that they were "On Call", let me reassure you that no such sign was hung up too.

Interestingly, as many Singaporeans can attest, once the clock strikes 12 midnight, there will be taxis galore, and "mysteriously" all the taxi queues would disappear then.

My question is - are taxi drivers knowingly giving the poor, waiting passengers a miss - so that the latter would have "no choice" but to Call-A-Cab? (and pay the Taxi Booking Fee)

If so, then the solution to this national malady is to SCRAP the Taxi Booking Fee.

15 March 2011

Pray For JAPAN

Friends, Japan has met a most devastating history with the earthquake-tsunami this past week. Hundreds of thousands of lives are lost. Children have lost their parents. Adults are crying for their deceased kids. Everywhere once strong-willed individuals are mourning loudly. TRAGEDY! TRAGEDY! Please take a moment of silence and pray in solidarity for the survivors - that their spirits will not be broken by the massive destruction around them. God have mercy on JAPAN. We not only love all things Japanese, we love the PEOPLE of Japan.  Regards, Rykel Lim (Singapore)

10 March 2011

PowerPlayer - The Only Play You Will Ever Need

It is now possible to go anything from Ruby Executive to Black Diamond Executive in MonaVie with just THREE (3) teams.

That is, a weekly income that grows from USD 2,000 to USD 29,000 simply by building numbers in the 3 teams! Go figure.

PowerPlayer cycles develop your first 2 teams so that you can go bananas on team 3.
New enrollees get excited too because they get to have a team built “with them, through them, for them” and they get all the money. The “problem” most of us active leaders have is that we have too many sign-ups that we want to give them away. The GUY AT THE BOTTOM BENEFITS THE MOST.

As for the current promotion, many TEAM members may choose to opt out of it as they are NOT going 20 wide. However, it is great for their friends from other Mv groups who are building left/right/left/right and I am sure we all rejoice with those who rejoice.

As for TEAM, a surprise is coming up for you all! Stay tuned. :) 

Wrong Again! (Anti-MLM Kingpins Exposed)

Anti-MLM Kingpins are at it once more. This time, it is a new video circulating on Youtube that attempts to discredit TEAM and Orrin Woodward. Obviously, they hope that the average person who just joined Network Marketing will be swayed by their FUDs. Do not be a victim of Anti-MLM-ism.

I wrote the following response.
Hey guys, the video is NOT a very accurate portrayal of TEAM.

If time permits, I will drill in to all the places where the teacher should NOT have replied the way he replied in the video, because those sentences were NOT in line with TEAM teachings.

     eg. Girl: "Is it a get-rich-quick scheme?"
     Teacher: "YES! Who wouldn't want to get rich quick?"

Official TEAM Teaching: "The keys to wealth are 1. LONG TERM vision. 2. DELAYED gratification. 3. Power of Compounding." (cf. "Woodward Videos" at www.the-team.biz)

Do those words sound like, "Let's get rich QUICK!!!" to any of you?
Humour is really great - but only if it is ACCURATE.

This is the reason why TEAM is hardly affected by most of the Anti-TEAM kingpins' websites out there... they fail to reflect the arguments of TEAM accurately. Who wants to get into a reasonable discussion with an opponent who misrepresents your position?    :)

   "I believe in A."
   "You believe in B, and B is wrong, therefore you are wrong."
   "I do not believe in B, but I do believe in A."
   "No, you do believe in B, and B is wrong, therefore you are wrong."
   ("Against MLM" - The Straw-man diatribe of an Anti-MLM kingpin)

06 February 2011

HOW TO: Set Up Empathy With Callcentric In Ubuntu Linux 10.10

Empathy is the default IM and VoIP program in Ubuntu Linux 10.10 (Maverick).

You can access it from the Envelope icon in your top-right hand Notification Area.

Empathy is hidden in the Envelope icon.

For a long time now, I cannot seem to get it to work with my Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) provider so that people can reach me on my Linux desktop via my iNum.

However, I toyed with getting 3CXphone and CSipSimple on Android to work with the abovementioned SIP service and learnt a thing or two about SIP setups.

Today, I managed to get Empathy to work!

This is what you must do in 4 simple steps:

  1. Set your username to 1777xxxxxxx@callcentric.com;
  2. Open up the "Advanced" options;
  3. REMOVE "Discover STUN server"; and
  4. Set your Miscellaneous Options/Authentication username to 1777xxxxxxx

That should work!

Here is a screenshot of my setup for your reference.

Empathy with SIP setup

29 January 2011

Google Chrome Removes Support For H.264 Format

I would like to weigh in my opinion (in support of Google) with regards to the recent announcement that Google Chrome is dropping support for the proprietary (ie. closed) H.264 video format.

However, Mr Haavard at Opera has written such a good report on the matter that I have decided to reproduce his article in its entirety here.

Enjoy a well-written defense of true Openness.

Is the removal of H.264 from Chrome a step backward for openness?

In a lengthy article at Ars Technica, Peter Bright argues that removing support for a closed standard from Chrome is a step backward for openness.

I disagree strongly with this assertion, and will try to somewhat briefly explain why, and what's wrong with the arguments put forth in the article.

1. "H.264 is an open standard"

Unfortunately, H.264 is patent-encumbered, and you need to pay money to use it. As per the W3C patent policy, this is incompatible with the definition of an open standard, particularly on the web. By the very definition of "open", H.264 cannot possibly be open, because it cannot be used unless you pay up.

2. "VP8 is not an open standard"

That is actually correct. VP8 is a technology with a specification, not a standard. However, Google has granted anyone the right to use it, and makes no claims about patents to restrict its royalty-free use. This means that VP8 is actually a good candidate for being turned into a proper open web standard.

3. "H.264 is free to use under certain circumstances"

Remember that H.264 still costs money. And even if products with a tiny user base may not have to pay right away, you still have to open your wallet at some point if you aim to do something on the web. The MPEG-LA has clevery provided the first shot for "free". Once you are hooked, they can start charging you.

It's called bait and switch.

4. "H.264 support isn't mandated in HTML5"

But it would become another closed de facto standard, just like IE6. And we all remember the damage that did to the web.

5. "Google bundles Flash, so it is being hypocritical"

This is comparing apples and oranges. Flash is a plugin, which Google chose to bundle because there is a lot of Flash content out there. On the other hand, H.264 would be part of the browser itself, and not a mere plugin.

One important thing to keep in mind is that Flash is already ubiquitous. If you want to do any kind of video on the web, you don't have a choice. Flash is needed (and that's assuming that you want to reach more than the comparatively tiny iOS user base). However, the "battle" over HTML5 video is still raging. There is no clear winner, but with Google dropping the closed H.264, it is much more likely that an open format will prevail in the end.

So when Google keeps bundling the Flash plugin, it makes perfect sense. Most video content on the web uses Flash, and that allows Google to continue to support just about all online video until native video support gains a proper foothold. There is no hypocrisy involved here, just pragmatism.

In the end, the question of Google's bundling of Flash is a red herring which takes away the focus from the real issue: Whether native video support in browsers is based on open or closed technologies.

Update: Some will raise iOS as a counter-argument, but it does not hold water. There's a reason why a lot of iDevice owners are resorting to pay for even poor quality video transcoding soluions on the iOS, and that is that they can't access most video sites. The reason iOS gets away with H.264 is basically that YouTube (Google's video service, and the biggest and most important video service on the web) supports it. The vast majority of video sites still require Flash. I understand that some major Apple fans are worried about Google's push for WebM, though. Losing YouTube support would be a major blow to Apple.

6. "H.264 is everywhere, and the web does not exist in a vacuum"

Just because a format is widespread offline does not mean that it is suitable for use on the web. Since the web requires open standards, H.264 is not suitable as the primary format for video on the web, by definition.

And the argument that H.264 is everywhere and everyone will have to handle it does not hold much water, in my opinion. Sites like YouTube will convert and compress videos anyway, so very few are publishing raw H.264 videos straight from your camera, and on to the web.

In other words: The processing will always be there, and instead of re-processing to a slightly more compressed H.264 file for online play, it can be converted to an open format.

7. "H.264 can be used in both Flash and through HTML5 video, ensuring a smooth transition"

As already explained, videos are typically re-encoded or processed in some way anyway. Indeed, most sites offer different bandwidth options and video sizes. They are already converting the video! They could simply convert it to an open format instead.

8. "Firefox users would be able to view H.264 content using Microsoft's plugin"

Notice the word "plugin". It means that we're basically removing HTML5 video, and returning to plugins. All the benefits of native video disappear just like that (and it's only available on Windows 7). On the other hand, I believe it's possible to fairly easily add support for WebM to both Safari and IE by adding it to the list of codecs supported by the system.

9. "The market share of browsers that support H.264 exceeds WebM capable browsers"

Google's online advertising monopoly is working on overdrive to ensure that won't happen. If I am not mistaken, the share of open standards based browsers is growing at the expense of Internet Explorer. Although browser market share is impossible to measure reliably, most of the data seems to confirm that.

10. "Google's decision gives users fewer choices"

Now we are starting get to the core of the issue. And sadly, it is H.264 which takes away choice. While WebM maintains the web as an open platform, H.264 is a closed standard owned by an industry cartel which would ruthlessly stamp out any attempts at getting alternatives up and running.

I also find it puzzling that Google is being accused of giving users fewer choices, while Microsoft and Apple aren't even mentioned. They refuse to support WebM, after all.

11. "VP8 is Google-controlled and proprietary"

I'm not sure if this is the actual claim, but it is my interpretation of it. And it is an incorrect claim. Read the WebM license page for more information. WebM is an open-source project sponsored by Google, and it is freely available because of the license.

The bottom line:

The article aims to show that Google's move is a step backwards for openness. In reality, the article brings up all sorts of things that are not really relevant to this question at all. This, I think, clouds the debate, because the question of openness is actually the most important one!

We can easily test what causes more openness in the context of the web:

  • H.264 is a patent-encumbered and therefore "closed" standard. It is incompatible with the W3C patent policy for an open web. Therefore, promoting H.264 as the primary format for HTML5 video is the opposite of promoting openness.
  • On the other hand, WebM is very much in the spirit of the W3C patent policy. Google grants anyone royalty-free access to the technology. Since WebM is open, it promotes an open web.

Conclusion: By rejecting that which closes the web, while at the same time promoting open technologies, Google is contributing to a more open web, contrary to the claims in the article.

The original blog post can be found at: